Global Asthma Network Logo Global Asthma Network Global Asthma Network Logo
  • The Global Asthma Network strives for a world where no-one suffers from asthma

  • The Global Asthma Network is the asthma surveillance hub for the world

  • The Global Asthma Network researches ways of reducing the burden of asthma

  • The Global Asthma Network promotes access to appropriate asthma management

  • The Global Asthma Network stimulates and encourages capacity building in LMICs

  • The Global Asthma Network strives to ensure access to quality-assured essential asthma medications

  • The Global Asthma Network raises the profile of asthma as a major NCD

20. Detailed Guidelines for fieldworkers

The following detailed guidelines are intended to assist the fieldworker to implement the survey. They are a guide only as it is recognised that each centre is unique and faces different situations and problems. We hope that they may be useful for some centres.

20.1 Identifying boxes ‘for office use only’

In New Zealand, to identify the age group, centres, schools, children, survey number school term and language used, an ‘office use only’ set of boxes was designed. These boxes were placed at the top right hand side of the front page (example page 185) and ensured that each student, school and centre had a unique number when entering data into a computer.

The questionnaires have a 2 pre-printed in the first box for 6/7 year olds, 4 for primary adults, 1 for secondary school pupils and 3 for adults of secondary students. The language is coded as per page section 20.3 (e.g. 011 for English, 061 for Xhosa). Other boxes were completed by the fieldworker.

The participant number and survey number should be entered before the questionnaires are handed out to the students and recorded on the school lists. The six New Zealand centres were numbered as follows:

                                                                                                                                    
CENTRE:1 = Auckland2 = Wellington
3 = Christchurch4 = Hawke’s Bay
5 = Nelson6 = Bay of Plenty

SCHOOL:

0

2

Example

Enter a unique number between 1 and 99 for each sampled school in each centre. Numbers can be repeated for primary and secondary schools as each form type can be identified by the 1 or 2 in the first box. Start number units the in the right hand box.

CHILD:

0

0

4

1

Example

Enter a unique number from 1 for each sampled child in each school. Start number units in the right hand box. For each school numbering can begin from 1 or continue on from school to school.

SURVEY:

1

Example

Enter 1 in the first box for the first send out.

Enter 2 in the first box for the second send out.

The second box is for the School Term or other identifying mark.

TERM:

The second box, next to the survey number is used for the School Term that the survey was carried out in. This box could also be used to record some other method of identifying the time of year, such as season.

 

3

                                    = Term 3 2015   
                           

1

                  = Term 1 2016

            Example 

                                             Example

As the students names were not entered onto the computer, the numbers in these boxes proved to be a successful way of keeping track of each questionnaire. The numbers were entered alongside the students name on the class lists and proved a successful tracking method when a questionnaire needed checking at a later date.

20.2 Example New Zealand demographic questions

20.3  Language codes

Code Language Code Language
1 Afrikaans 32 Lithuanian
2 Albanian 33 Macedonian
3 Amharic 34 Malay
4 Arabic 35 Maltese
5 Basque 36 Malyalam
6 Bulgarian 37 Marathi
7 Catalan 38 Moroccan Arabic
8 Chinese 39 North Sotho
9 Croatian 40 Norwegian
10 Dutch 41 Persian
11 English 42 Polish
12 Estonian 43 Portuguese
13 Fijian 44 Romanian
14 Filipino 45 Russian
15 Finnish 46 Samoan
16 French 47 Serbian
17 Georgian 48 Sinhala
18 German 49 Spanish
19 Greek 50 Swedish
20 Guarani 51 Tagalog
21 Gujarati 52 Tamil
22 Hebrew 53 Thai
23 Hindi 54 Tokelauan
24 Hungarian 55 Tongan
25 Indonesian 56 Turkish
26 Italian 57 Ukrainian
27 Japanese 58 Urdu
28 Kannada 59 Uzbek
29 Korean 60 Vietnamese
30 Kyrgyz 61 Xhosa
31 Latvian ; ;

20.4 Protocol for collecting Height and weight measurements for adolescents and children (strongly recommended)

20.4.1  Height Protocol

Comment or instructions to respondents

“I’m going to take two measurements – one of your height and the other of your weight. Please take off your shoes”

Measurements are taken on a hard surface135. As only one measurement of height is taken it is very important that the protocol is adhered to.

Definition: The perpendicular distance between the top of the head (the vertex) and the bottom of the feet.

Equipment required: Portable calibrated stadiometer

frankfort plane

Figure 1: Head in the Frankfort Plane
Source: Adapted from the ISAK Manual, 2001.

Method
Ask the participant to stand on the centre of the base with their back to the stadiometer. Ask them to put their feet together and move back until their heels touch the bottom of the stadiometer upright. Their buttocks and upper part of their back should also be touching the stadiometer upright. Their head does not have to touch the stadiometer. The participant’s head should be in the Frankfort plane. This is achieved when the lower edge of the eye socket (the Orbitale) is horizontal with the Tragion [see Figure 1]. The vertex will be the highest point on their head. If their head is not aligned properly, (and for most participants it probably won’t be), ask them to raise or lower their chin until it is in the Frankfort Plane.

When you are happy that the participant is in the correct position, ask them to take a deep breath and hold it. Lower the headboard until it is in contact with the head. Compress the hair if needed. Make sure you don’t bend the headboard from the horizontal, nor move the participant’s head. Hold the headboard firmly at its final position and take the reading to the nearest 0.1 cm.

When you have completed the reading, ask the participant to step away from the stadiometer. Record your reading on the questionnaire and note which measurement you used (metres or centimetres or feet and inches). Note: If the respondent is as tall as you, or taller, you will need to stand on a box to judge when the head is in the right position and to take the reading, as both these actions need your eyes to be in the same horizontal plane as the object you are looking at.

Comment or instructions to participants

“Please stand on the centre of the base with your back to the stadiometer. Put your feet together and move them back until your hells touch the back of the stadiometer. Stand up straight and look straight ahead.” (If their head is not horizontal, say…) “Please raise (or lower) your chin. Take a deep breath and hold it. That’s fine you can breathe normally now and step away from the stadiometer”.

stadiometer1                                  stadiometer2

20.4.2  Weight Protocol

Definition:
Weight is the force the matter in the body exerts in a standard gravitational field.

Equipment required:
Calibrated weighing scales

Setting the scales
Place the scales on a hard flat surface135. If carpet is the only floor covering in the measurement location, put a board down on the carpet and place the scales on the board.
Method
As only one measurement is taken it is important that this protocol is adhered to. Press firmly on the centre of the scales to turn them on. Once the zeros appear, ask the Participant to stand on the scales. Ask the participant to stand on the centre of the scales without support, with their arms loosely by their sides, head facing forward and with their weight distributed evenly on both feet. A reading will appear in a few seconds. The numbers will change, and then stop. Once the numbers have stopped, take the reading to the nearest 0.1 kg.

Ask the participant to step off the scale. Record the reading on the questionnaire and mark which measurement was used (kilograms or stones or pounds).

Comment or instructions to respondents

“Wait until it reads zero.”
“Please step onto the centre of the scale with your weight on both feet.”
“Relax.”
“Thank you. You can step off now.”

20.5 Example Global Asthma Network centre report

This document has been updated and additional information is required. The updated version is available from the GAN Global Centre (info@globalasthmanetwork.org).

Country Name:__________Country and Centre Number:_________

Centre Name:_______________________ Age group:______________________________

Principal Investigator:________________Dates of data collection:____________________

National Coordinator:________________Date report completed:______________________

(if applicable)

Local ethical approval granted: Date:______________________________

Name of Local Ethics Committee:____NB: See online centre Report for additional information required______

1 SAMPLING FRAME AND SCHOOLS

1.1       Which of the sampling frame categories is most appropriate for your study?:

Note: The sampling frame is the geographic area from which the schools were selected, as well as other criteria that defines which schools were available for selection.

Please tick the box that best describes your sampling frame:

Geographic area only
Geographic area and specific school type
Geographic area and specific ethnic group
Geographic area and specific language
Other (please specify below)

1.2       Please describe the sampling frame for your centre:

Note: Please use similar terms to those in these examples: “All schools in the Auckland area; Some schools in the Western Health District”; “Private schools in the Canterbury region”.

1.3.      Have you sent a detailed map showing the boundaries of your Phase One centre to the GAN Global Centre?

yes
No

Ideally, the map will be a vector or shape file compatible with Geographic Information Software such as ArcGIS (available from http://www.arcgis.com/). If this is not possible, a hand drawn and scanned map drawn on a commercial street map or printout of google maps or similar will be acceptable.

NB: If this centre participated in ISAAC please check with the GAN Global Centre to enquire if the ISAAC map provided was of sufficient quality to be used for this study

If you require further information regarding this format please contact us. info@globalasthmanetwork.org

1.4       Were any schools excluded from the sampling frame before being approached to participate?

yes
No

For example, schools might be excluded if the researchers know that they are located in areas with difficult access or if the children are unable to participate. These schools would then be left out of the sampling frame and not included in the selection process.

1.5       If yes, please give your reasons why these schools were excluded from the sampling frame.

1.6       Did you reject any schools after they had been selected?

yes
No

For example a school may have elected to participate and you then found that the students were unable to complete the questionnaire because they were disabled.

1.7       Please give your reasons why you rejected these schools

1.8       How many students (of your selected age group) were there in the rejected schools? _____________            

1.9       Please give:   

A - The total number of schools (for this age group) in your selected sampling frame?                                          _____________

B - The total number of children (for this age group), that were in the schools in the sampling frame?                         _____________

1.10     Did you approach all schools (for this age group) in your sampling frame?

yes
No

            If you answered No:

1.11     Were the schools selected using a random sampling method?

yes
No

1.12     Was there stratification by school type, followed by random sampling of schools?

yes
No

For example, you may have stratified the population according to whether they attend public or private schools.

1.13     If the schools were not selected using a random sampling method, please describe the method used

2          CLASSES AND CHILDREN

2.1       Which overall approach did you use when selecting children within the schools?

Grade/level/year
Selection by age group
Other

            Please refer to attached notes for clarification. 

                    

2.2       If you answered ‘Other’ for question 2.1 please describe your approach to selecting children within the schools:

2.3       Which children were selected from the grade/level/year or age group?

All children
Some children

2.4       If you answered ‘some children’ to question 2.3 please describe how these children were selected.

2.5       How many grades/levels/years or years of age did you select?

   
One
Two
Other

2.6       If you answered ‘other’ to question 2.5 please describe how many grades/levels/years or years of age you selected.

3          DATA ENTRY

3.1       Was the data double entered or scanned?

yes
No

Double entry is a common method of data entry that minimises data entry errors and it is expected that at least 10% of the data is double entered. The data is entered two times, preferably by two different people. The two versions of the data set are compared and any differences checked against the original questionnaire.

If you answered ‘YES’ please go to question 4.

3.2       If you answered ‘NO’ to question 3.1, please describe the data entry method you used

3.3       If you answered ‘NO’ to question 3.1 can you check (and/or have you checked) the data for entry errors?

yes
No

If you answered ‘YES’ to question 3.3

3.3A     Please describe your method for checking for data entry errors

4          CHANGES TO DATA AFTER DATA ENTRY

4.1       Were any changes made to the demographic data after the questionnaires were completed?

yes
No

The demographic data is the information concerning the age, sex, date of birth and date of interview for each child. You may have changed this data if there was incorrect information written and you had checked this against the information available from the school. You may also have made corrections at the request of the GAN Global Centre.

4.2       If you answered yes to question 4.1, please describe the changes made to the demographic data.

4.3       Were any changes made to the data from the asthma rhinitis, eczema or video questionnaires?
yes
No

If you answered ‘NO’ to question 4.3, please go to question 5, participation rates

4.4       If you answered ‘YES’ to question 4.3, were these changes due to data entry error?

yes
No

If you answered ‘YES’, to question 4.4, please go to question 5, participation rates.

4.5       If No: Please describe the reasons why you changed the data.

4.6       What percent of the observations had changes made to the asthma, rhinitis, eczema or video questionnaire?                                            _____________

4.7       Can the data be returned to its original form?

yes
No

4.8       Has a copy of the data without the changes been submitted to the GAN Global Centre

yes
No

(if ‘NO’ could you please send a copy to the GAN Global Centre)

4.9       Have you kept a copy of the data without the changes?

yes
No

5       PARTICIPATION RATES

5.1       How many schools participated in your centre?                                __________

5.2       What was the total number of children selected to participate in these schools? __________

5.3       Did you include children younger and older than the age group?

yes
No

5.3A. Has the data from these children been included in the data submitted to the GAN Global Centre

yes
No

5.3B. If NO, is this data available on request by the GAN Global Centre?

yes
No

5.4       How many schools refused to participate after they had been selected?     _______

(answer 0 if no schools refused to participate).

5.4A. How many students of your selected age group were there in the schools that refused to participate?                                                          _______

5.5       What is the total number of students that participated? This will be the same number as in the data that has been submitted to the GAN Global Centre.    _______

5.6       How many students (or parents) did not participate? This answer and the answer to question 5.5 should add up to the number you gave for question 5.2.                                                                                                    _______

5.7       Did you have any difficulties getting the number of children that you needed for the required participation rate?

yes
No

If Yes – What difficulties did you encounter?

5.8       Did you include the parents/guardians of this age group?

yes
No

5.9       How many parents/guardians participated in this survey                                                    _______

6.      TRANSLATION OF QUESTIONNAIRES

6.1       Did you use the English language questionnaire for this age group?

yes
No

6.2       Did you use any translations of the English language questionnaire for this age group?

yes
No

If you answered ‘NO’ please go to question 7

6.3       How many languages were used in your centre for this age group?

Number:

6.4       Please name the languages that you used for this age group

6.5       Did you develop the translation/s in your centre?

yes
No

6.5A. If you answered No to question 6.5, where did you obtain these?

Centre Name:                         _____________

Collaborators Name                _____________

Now, please go to question 7

6.7       Were the local community approached to help with difficult words and concepts?

yes
No

6.8       Were other centres in the country or region involved in preparation of the translated questionnaires?

6.9       If you answered Yes to question 6.8, please list the other centres

6.10     Were the translated questionnaires translated back to English by an independent translator?

yes
No

If yes, please give name:___________________________

6.11     Were the translated questionnaires pilot tested?

yes
No

6.12     Has a copy of the translation been sent to the GAN Global Centre?

yes
No

(If a copy has not yet been sent, we would appreciate receiving a copy). 

6.13     Could you please give the proportion of questionnaires that were used in each language

%                                 Language

7.      VIDEO (For older age group only)

7.1       Did you use the international video in all the secondary schools that you went to?

yes
No

7.1A If No, please give the reasons why it was not used

7.2       How many schools did the video questionnaire?                              _____________

7.3       How many schools did NOT do the video questionnaire?                 _____________

7.4       How many children completed the video questionnaire?                  _____________

7.5       What spoken language(s) was (were) used for the video questionnaire? (please specify)

8.         Additional questions

8.1       Did you use additional questions following the Core questions for either age group?

yes
No

If yes could you please send a copy of these questions to the GAN Global Centre.

Thank you for completing this report. This will enable the ISAAC International GAN Global Centre to accurately document the methodology for each centre for the analysis and writing of manuscripts. The GAN Global Centre would appreciate this Centre Report being returned to the GAN Global Centre by either fax 64 9 3737602 or by post. We will enter the details into our database and send you a completed copy for you to check and keep for your records.

Best wishes from Philippa Ellwood, Eamon Ellwood and Innes Asher.

The GAN Global Centre

Department of Paediatrics: Child and Youth Health, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.

Email: info@globalasthmanetwork.org

Phone 64 9 3737599 extension 6451:Fax 64 9 3737602

We would welcome further comment regarding any difficulties that you encountered

20.6 Guidelines for the 13/14 year age group survey

  1. When a randomly selected list of schools has been generated for your centre (some centres will use all schools therefore a random list will not be necessary), a phone call to each school secretary to ask the Principal’s name will mean that a personalised letter can be sent (example section 15). Include a sample information letter to parents/guardians, questionnaires for pupils and adults, a copy of any translations and any other relevant information, for example a copy of the local ethics committee approval.
  2. Keep a record of every contact that is made with the schools, the dates of phone calls, dates the letters are sent and names of all contact people especially the secretary as this may be the person you have most contact with.
  3. Ring the school one week after the letter has been sent to speak to the Principal and discuss the process that would be undertaken for approval to be given. If necessary arrange a meeting to speak personally to the Principal and others (e.g. Board of Trustees, teachers).
  4. When permission has been granted, arrange a time to visit to discuss the logistics of running the survey and identify who the school coordinator for the survey is to be. Some schools may wish to undertake the survey using an online system, whereby the school sends the information letters out to parents via email. This is made clear in point 19 below. Other schools may wish to send the information letters and questionnaires out to parents via the students. In most centres, passive consent will be considered adequate by local Ethics Committees, however this needs to be clarified by each individual centre. Request that a list of the students in the classes involved (or age group) is available for your use and if possible, obtain date of birth, gender and ethnicity on this list. As it is anticipated that some students will be absent on the first visit, arrange a date for a follow up visit.
  5. If passive consent is approved by the local Ethics Committee, refusals will be accepted by:
    1. A phone call to the researcher (or appropriate person) by the Parent/Guardian;
    2. Sending the information letter back to the school (or researcher) with a written response and including the students name; or
    3. Verbal refusal from the student (as long as the excuse is plausible).
  6. If written consent is required, this will be an appropriately worded section, attached to the information letter, asking the parent/guardian to return the slip to the school or another appropriate place. The class lists provided by the school should then be marked to identify the students who are not to participate with the rest of the class.
  7. STUDENT survey completion (at school)
    At a time to suit the school, the fieldworker(s) arrive bringing with them the printed questionnaires, and a copy of the video. Some schools like the survey to be done in individual classes of students, whereas others prefer the students to congregate in a large area such as the school hall, and undertake the survey together. Either method is permissible.

    The demographic information given by the students can ideally be checked against the information supplied by the school e.g. date of birth and age at the finish of the survey when the height and weight measurements are taken (see 8). Any wrong information given by the student or the school can then be checked.

  8. The video questionnaire must always be shown after the written questionnaires and should be tested prior to the students being present to ensure that the sound and quality are of adequate quality to be heard and seen by all the students (video questionnaire sections 7 & 20.6). Height and weight measurements are then taken.
  9. Check that the written questionnaire intended for the 13/14 year olds is identified. For New Zealand, we have office use only boxes to code the age group, the year term used, how many surveys were issued to the student and location and language (example section 20.1).Codes identifying the related adult questionnaires can be added to the 13-14 year questionnaire.
  10. Ensure that each student has a pen or pencil to write with (the survey is often done outside the home classroom).
  11. A short explanation is beneficial before handing out the questionnaires. Students are more attentive if the researcher shows them the questionnaire and explains it simultaneously. Instructions not to answer the video questionnaire until directed, not to discuss the questions (or answers) and to raise their hand if they have any queries are necessary to ensure privacy. Instructions on how to alter an incorrect answer should also be given.
  12. Survey forms are then given out either for general issue to the class who will complete the demographic data and answer the questions.
  13. Principles to follow regarding fielding questions from participants may be helpful (see standardised approach to fielding questions below). It is important to answer questions individually and quietly so as not to influence the other students.
  14. Checking the front page before students leave is advantageous and allows the student to make the corrections. However, this is not always possible. A check may be done later and the questionnaire reissued to the student on the second visit if practicable.
  15. If questionnaires have not been completed in a comprehensible fashion, they could be returned to the original student for one further attempt (this may be logistically difficult).
  16. Once the questionnaire is completed, the core questionnaire responses must not be changed by researchers/field workers under any circumstances. The demographic information on the front page may be corrected if errors are detected and the correct answer can be confirmed from school information. Any changes must be noted on a correction sheet (see example section 20.8).
  17. Students must not be allowed to change their responses to the written questionnaire after viewing the video.
  18. Confirm with the coordinating teacher the date of the return visit for absentees and, if yet to be made, organise the date, preferably within two weeks of the first visit. Further questionnaires that have been returned by the adults can be collected then.
  19. ADULT survey completion of the adolescent (strongly recommended)

    If the Adult questionnaire is used, it is vital that the questionnaires can be linked to the adolescent survey by adding the adult questionnaire numbers to the adolescent survey. Please see the data coding section and “identifying boxes for office use only” in section 20. Two Adult questionnaires are issued and it must be made clear that if there is only one adult in the household, the second questionnaire must be returned to the school together with the completed Adult questionnaire with the adolescent that brought them home for completion.

    The two possible methods of sending the questionnaires home for adult completion are:
  20. Option One: Handing out the blank surveys to the class (or age group) and requesting that they take these home for their parent/guardian to complete. The questionnaires will be returned to school by the same mechanism. The fieldworker later marks those who have returned them off against the students name on the lists provided by the school and creates a chart for those that did not complete the survey. This chart is then presented to each teacher on the second visit or posted prior to the second visit and the reason noted down.

    Option Two: Sending the information letters and ADULT questionnaires to parents/guardians by email, according to the wishes and processes of the school. These are completed on line and returned to school via email.

    If, on the second visit, the researcher surveys a class or classes that had been absent at camp or away entirely, they should be classified as first surveys and only the students who were absent from their class on the first visit, will be second surveys (if centres are collecting this information). See chart below for recording absentees.

    Reasons for non participation

    Student Name

    Class Number

    Absent

    Not in age group

    Refusal

    Joe B

    AR

    Sam T

    AR

    √ 12 years

    Andy G

    BT

    Mark S

    GF

    √ 15 years

    Philip R

    GF

    Michael T

    GF

    √ verbal from student

  21. A letter of thanks from the researcher/field worker to the Principal and coordinating teacher is appropriate at this stage. Let them know that they will be notified of the results when they become available.

20.6.1  Standardised approach for fielding questions

Some students will ask questions relating to their understanding of the questions or the response required during the survey conducted in secondary schools.

The teacher(s) should not be involved in explaining the study or the method of answering questions. This must be the responsibility of the research field worker(s) who have been carefully briefed.

The principles to follow are:

  1. Speak only to the individual who has the problem (identified by a raised hand). The first step is to read the written question out softly, exactly as it is written.
  2. If the student is still unable to answer the question, the next step is to encourage them to think about the meaning.
  3. If the student is still unable to answer the question, the next step is to give a little information without explaining the response required.
  4. If the student is still unable to answer the question, the last step is to state that if the student really does not know how to respond, they should leave the question blank.

    If a student with learning difficulties has a helper who wishes to assist that child, the above guidelines should be followed.

  • Below are some examples for questions that commonly cause difficulties:
  • Question 1

    Have you ever had wheezing or whistling in the chest at any time in the past?

    Stage 1
    Student response: What is wheezing or whistling?”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “Have you ever had wheezing or whistling in the chest at any time in the past?” (i.e. read the question exactly as it is written).
    Stage 2
    Student response: “What is wheezing or whistling?”

    Question 1 continued

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “Words mean different things to different people. I want to know what you understand by this. Interpret it the best you can.”

    Stage 3
    Student response: “I don’t understand wheezing or whistling.”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
     “Wheezing or whistling is related to your breathing. You would probably know if you have had it.”

    Stage 4
    Student response: “I still don’t understand this. I don’t know if I have ever had it.”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “If you really don’t know then leave it blank.”

    Question 6

    Have you ever had asthma?

    Stage 1
    Student response: What is asthma?”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “Have you ever had asthma?” (i.e. read the question exactly as it is written).

    Stage 2
    Student response: “What is asthma?”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “Words mean different things to different people. I want to know what you understand by this. Interpret it the best you can.”

    Stage 3
    Student response: “I don’t understand asthma.”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:

    “Asthma is related to your breathing. You would probably know if you have had it.”

    Stage 4
    Student response: “I still don’t understand this. I don’t know if I have ever had it.”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “If you really don’t know then leave it blank.”

    Question 16

    In the last 12 months have you had a dry cough at night, apart from a cough associated with a cold or chest infection?

    Stage 1
    Student response: What is a dry cough?”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “In the last 12 months have you had a dry cough, apart from a cough associated with a cold or chest infection?” (i.e. read the question exactly as it is written).

    Stage 2
    Student response: “What is a dry cough?”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “Words mean different things to different people. I want to know what you understand by this. Interpret it the best you can.”

    Stage 3
    Student response: “I don’t understand what a dry cough is.”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:

    “It is not a wet one. There is no phlegm. It is just a dry cough. You would probably know if you have had it.”

    Stage 4
    Student response: “I still don’t understand this. I don’t know if I have ever had it.”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “If you really don’t know then leave it blank.”

    Question 22

    Have you ever had hay fever?

    Stage 1
    Student response: What is hay fever?”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “Have you ever had hay fever?” (i.e. read the question exactly as it is written).

    Stage 2
    Student response: “What is hay fever?”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “Words mean different things to different people. I want to know what you understand by this. Interpret it the best you can.”

    Stage 3
    Student response: “I don’t understand hay fever.”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “Hay fever affects your nose. You would probably know if you have had it.”

    Stage 4
    Student response: “I still don’t understand this. I don’t know if I have ever had it.”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “If you really don’t know then leave it blank.”

    Question 29

    Have you ever had eczema?

    Stage 1
    Student response: What is eczema?”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “Have you ever had eczema? (i.e. read the question exactly as it is written).

    Stage 2
    Student response: “What is eczema?”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “Words mean different things to different people. I want to know what you understand by this. Interpret it the best you can.”

    Stage 3
    Student response: “I don’t understand eczema.”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:

    “Eczema affects your skin. You would probably know if you have had it.”

    Stage 4
    Student response: “I still don’t understand this. I don’t know if I have ever had it.”

    Researcher response to individual student only, say aloud but in a quiet voice:
    “If you really don’t know then leave it blank.”

    20.6.2  Instructions for conducting the video questionnaire in schools

    Research staff and field workers should not use the term “asthma” when testing in the school. The phrase “breathing” or “a survey about breathing, skin and nose problems” are acceptable terms to use prior to showing the video.

    • Ensure video is working and the sound and picture quality is adequate if possible prior to the students being present. PLEASE VIEW THE VIDEO BEFORE YOU SHOW IT TO ANY GROUPS OF STUDENTS, SO THAT YOU ARE FAMILIAR WITH THE CONTENT AND LAYOUT.
    • The showing of the video must follow the completion of the written questions on wheezing rhinitis and eczema and not be shown before.
    • Hand out the answer sheets, and ask the students to fill in their name, age, sex and date of birth before the video starts.
    • Ask the students not to discuss with their friends or the person they are sitting next to, the answers they give.
    • Advise students not to begin completing the video questions until you request them to.
    • Play the video.

    20.6.3  The video questionnaire (AVQ 3.0)

    The video questionnaire consists of questions, relating to five video scenes of young people with breathing problems. The questions require yes/no answers.

    The video questionnaire starts with an initial introductory section, which is read out. The first video scene is introduced and then shown.

    Following this video scene, the video screen becomes blank, and a three part question relating to the scene just viewed, is read out. This sequence of scene introduction, followed by showing the scene, then followed by a three part question relating to the scene, is repeated for each of the five scenes.

    The whole video takes 7 minutes to show.

    • When the screen becomes blank start reading the instructions (refer section 7).
    • Each time you hear the tone, move on to the next item on the instructions and read it out.
    • You will note that some items are one sentence only, whereas others involve several sentences.
    • Read all the instructions each time.
    • Read the questions after the scenes slowly.
    • After the video has been shown, ask the students if any have seen the video before. If any have, ask them to put a “V” on the top right hand side of the questionnaires on the front.
    • When collecting the questionnaires, ensure demographic questions are complete.
    • Remind the coordinating teacher that you will return to administer the questionnaire to those students not present on the day.

    See section 7 for the verbal instructions that are to be read out as the video is played to the 13/14 year old students.

    20.7 Suggested guidelines for the 6/7 year age group survey

    1. When a randomly selected list of schools has been generated for your centre (some centres will use all schools therefore a random list will not be necessary), a phone call to each school secretary to ask the Principal’s name will mean that a personalised letter can be sent (example section 15.2). Include a sample of the information letter to parents/guardians, questionnaires, a copy of any translations and any other relevant information, for example a copy of the local ethical approval.
    2. Keep a record of all contacts made with the schools, the dates of phone calls, dates the letters are sent and names of all contact people especially the secretary as this may be the person you have most contact with.
    3. Ring the school one week after the letter has been sent to speak to the Principal and discuss the process that would be undertaken for approval to be given. If necessary arrange a meeting to speak personally to the Principal and others (e.g. Board of Trustees, teachers). Some schools now prefer surveys to be done on line and can arrange these to be sent by email attachment and returned. If this is the case, the school will advise on how this will be implemented.
    4. When permission has been granted, an appointment is made for the fieldworker to visit the school. If the questionnaires are to be taken home by the pupils, arrange for class lists to be available on the day complete with the child’s name, age, date of birth and ethnicity, if possible. The questionnaires for the 6/7 year old could be pre-named and ready for distribution by the teachers, along with the questionnaires for the parent (Adult questionnaire) to complete. The codes of the Adult Questionnaire must be recorded on the Child Questionnaire (see section 20.1). However the cooperation of the teaching staff is essential to ensure that the children return the questionnaires, therefore, it may facilitate good will for the fieldworker to complete the naming of the questionnaires at the school, collate into classes and give to the teachers to hand out at the end of the day. The personal contact with the teachers cannot be underestimated and is the key to achieving a high participation rate.
    5. If the younger age group take the questionnaires home for parent/guardian completion (rather than sending them by email), the following points can be of assistance to the fieldworker:
      1. Print an appropriate number of stickers that can be stuck on the bottom of the information letter e.g. ‘Please return by Friday’ or one other day, giving them about a week to complete and return the questionnaire to school (the information letter is taken home with the questionnaire (example section 16.1).
      2. If a small ‘prize’ for the children is found, they are encouraged to get the questionnaire completed so they can return it and claim the ‘prize’. In Auckland, we found a printing company who kindly agreed to donate a book sticker. The teacher gave each child a sticker when the questionnaire was returned and this method proved very successful.
      3. Most schools will have a stamp with the school name on it. Use this on every questionnaire and save time.

      The centre number and the school number can be entered later. Mistakes will not occur as long as the school name has been stamped on the questionnaire. However, some may prefer to enter all the numbers at the time of first issue.

      If the questionnaires are given to the children to take home, this is a step by step procedure for the 6/7 year age group.

      1. Class lists obtained and each child given a number beside the name.
      2. Child’s name entered onto questionnaire.
      3. Child’s unique number, survey, term, centre and school number entered onto questionnaire (centre and school numbers can be entered later as long as Step iv is completed).
      4. Name of school stamped onto questionnaire.
      5. Letter to parent with relevant translation enclosed inside questionnaire (sticker with date of return put on the bottom of the information letter).
      6. Each survey folded, with a final check to ensure that it has been numbered, named and school name stamped.
      7. With each survey for the 6/7 year old include 2 adult surveys. If the Adult surveys are used, it is vital that these can be linked with the child survey by adding the adult questionnaire numbers to the child survey. Please see the data coding section and “identifying boxes for office use only” in section 20. It must be made clear that if there is only one adult in the household, the second questionnaire must be returned to the school together with the completed Adult questionnaire with the child that brought them home for completion.
      8. Bundles for each classroom held with 2 rubber bands (one horizontal and one vertical), class room number written on the top questionnaire.
      9. Appropriate numbers of ‘gifts’ to accompany each classrooms questionnaires.
      10. Note attached to each bundle of questionnaires, thanking the teacher. For example:

        Thank you very much for your assistance. Would you please ask the children to return these surveys by …./…./2015. This information is on the letter for the parent enclosed in the questionnaire. Would you please give them a (?sticker [‘prize’]) when they return the survey.

    6. Some schools require a small introduction of the project to the members of staff. This can often be done at a morning tea break when at the school numbering the questionnaires.
    7. Discuss with the secretary when to return to collect the questionnaires. The timing of this should be approximately one week following the “Please return by Friday” (or one other day) on the letter to the parent. A phone call before returning to the school is usually appreciated by the staff. Enquire how many surveys have been returned and then decide if it is worth postponing the visit
    8. On return to the school, sort all surveys into number sequence and then mark off on the class list. For the numbers not marked off, reissue another questionnaire using the same process as above, but the Survey Number will now be
      2
      instead of
      1
                        

    9. For second issues, inclusion of a stamped self-addressed envelope may increase the % of returns. Some parents may prefer this method of return. If funds permit this may be a better option for some centres with the first issue also. Some schools may prefer this as it would mean less involvement for the teachers.
    10. In the case of surveys returned uncompleted, reissue the survey but put a 2 above the 1.

      Note: Reissue returned BLANK SURVEYS on the premise that it could have been left in the child’s bag and returned to get the ‘prize’. A POSITIVE NO from the parent/guardian on the questionnaire would stop a reissue. Because of privacy issues, some parents may not want the school to collect the completed questionnaire – New Zealand had a good response from the 2nd issue with the envelope provided.

      Note on the class lists of the surveys not returned and those returned blank and keep a record of the reissue date. If Adult questionnaires are returned blank together with completed Adult and Child Questionnaires, record the number of the blank adult questionnaire alongside the completed child questionnaire so these can be linked.

    11. It may be a good idea to leave a few spare stamped self-addressed envelopes with the school secretary, and request that any late returned questionnaires to the school be posted back to the researcher/fieldworker.
    12. No further contact with the school is required, however, a thank you letter would be appreciated. Advise them that they will be notified of the results when they become available.
    13. Surveys collected are put into a locked filing cabinet. Any returned by post are checked off against the class list and put into the appropriate class by number sequence. At a less pressured time the surveys can be checked against the class lists for correct date of birth, age, and numbering.
    14. Any corrections to demographic data must be recorded (example section 20.8) and the questionnaire identified using the numbers recorded in the “office use only” boxes.
    15. The questionnaire must not be altered under any circumstances.

    20.8 Changes to the demographic data

    Example of how the ‘office use only’ boxes are used to record any corrections made to the Demographic data. This ensures that any changes made are legitimate and can be identified and checked if necessary.

    Signature of Researcher_________________         

    Question   Reason for Change

    Office use only

    1

    1

    06

    0193

    12

    036

    Primary, centre 1, school 6, child 193, 1st survey, term 2, Spanish language

    Age

    Age given did not match the DOB given. Checked with school DOB correct therefore age changed by Researcher.

    1

    1

    10

    0004

    11

    011

    DOB 

    DOB and age did not match up. Checked with School. Q Had wrong DOB, therefore DOB changed by researcher.

    1

    1

    18

    0006

    21

    001

    Date 

    The Date given by parent had wrong year (1892 instead of 1992). Researcher changed to reflect the correct date.

    A full page of these blank boxes can be generated (and then photocopied for multiple copies) and hand completed by the person checking the questionnaires. This enables an up to date record to be kept of any changes and these pages can them be examined if there is a query regarding the changes.